The rebirth of Japanese enamelling is widely credited to the samurai Kaji Tsunekichi of Nagoya. Like many Samurai in 19th century Japan, he was haunted by the menacing spectre of modernity – that, and the meagre stipend. To address this he took apart one of his own pieces (not recommended) and by studying its construction felt suitably confident to have a go himself. Presumably, after a period of great frustration and toil, he emerged with a small cloisonné dish.
The King’s Porcelain Manufactory, Berlin was established in 1763 as, amongst other things, a way of King Frederick the Great financing his many wars. Previous efforts at creating ‘White Gold’ in Prussia had been plagued by war, competition in the market and ‘technical difficulties.’